VCU Libraries

Research Guides

Research Animal Welfare

Boolean Operators

Connecting terms with AND requires all terms to appear in the same article.

Connecting terms with OR results in articles that include one term, a combination of terms, or all of the terms.

Sample search:

(rats OR mice) AND (discriminative stimulus OR drug discrimination) AND (synthetic cathinone OR MDPV OR methylone OR mephedrone)

Limiting publication years

Many databases such as PubMed allow you to narrow down your results by publication date.

​New IACUC protocols: We recommend that you find articles published within the last 10 years.

Protocol renewals: We recommend that you find articles published in the last 3 years.

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Databases & Resources by Animal Model

These databases and resources can be used to support your search for the 3Rs. 

Resources with an asterisk (*) cannot be used as the only database resource for the IACUC's Database Search, Section 2.0. Instead, please include them in Section 4.0, "Other sources consulted (if any)".

Mice / Rats

Fish / Frogs / Aquatic

Guinea Pigs / Hamsters

Large / Farm Animal - Sheep, Swine

Non-Human Primates


Dogs / Cats