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Guide to resources that are useful when it comes to the study and practice of nursing.

Citation Management Tool: Zotero

Online Resources from Others

APA Citations

Point of Care / Database Resources 

Helpful Tip
  • When citing sources that you find from a Point-of-Care Database (e.g. Dynamed, FirstConsult, Epocrates, UptoDate) treat the record as if it was from an e-book entry. You may need to include a retrieval date if the information you viewed is likely to change over time (p. 203-204).   
    • Authors: If the entry does not list author(s) names, you should use the corporate author (i.e. Dynamed).
    • Dates: Look for the last updated or last revised date usually posted at the top or bottom of the record
    • Retrieved: Include the date you accessed the information

General Format 
       In-Text Citation: 
      (Author Surname, Year/last updated)
      Personal or Corporate Author. (Last update  if not known, put n.d.).
            Title of specific document. Publisher. Retrieved date from URL database homepage

Example: Up to Date  

According to the instruction from UpToDate, Cite the UpToDate® topic as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate, edited by the section editor, published by UpToDate in Waltham, MA. There are no page numbers to cite, and the publication year for any topic should be the current year.

Here is an example:

In-Text Citation: Up to Date 

(File, 2016)

References: Up to Date

File, T.M. (2016). Treatment of hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia in               adults. In J.G. Bartlett (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved from

In-Text Citation: Up to Date 

(Pauli & Repke, 2015)

References: Up to Date

Pauli, J.M, & Repke, T.M. (2015). Insertion of interuterine pressure catheters. In S.M.Ramin (Ed.), UpToDate.                        Retrieved from

In-Text Citation: Up to Date 

(Marion, 2013)

References: Up to Date

Marion, D.W. (2013). Diaphragmatic pacing. In T. W. Post (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved from                                             

Example: FirstConsult        

In-Text Citation: FirstConsult

      (Dietrich & Kreindler, 2015)
References: FirstConsult 
      Dietrich, A., & Kriendler, J.L.  (2015, April 17). Asthma in Children .  St. Louis: Elsevier. 
            Retrieved  January, 15, 2016 from
Example: Epocrates 
       In-Text Citation: Epocrates
      (Shah & Kantharia, 2015)
References: Epocrates
      Shah , A.N., & Kantharia, B.K. (2015, January 7). Acute atrial fibrillation. San Mateo, CA :
Inc.. Retrieved  February, 2, 2016 from

Rule for Subscription Databases

: Since a subscription database item is only available if the reader has access, you should not include the long URL of the item. 
Do:  Do include the homepage URL of the database to show the reader the name of the publisher and how one would be able to access the item if they obtained  a subscription to the database.

Bad Example: 

Tuggy, M.L., & Gilliam, M. (2013, July 28). Knee Injury.St. Louis: Elsevier. 

    Retrieved  July, 8, 2015 from!/content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-1016324?                         scrollTo=%23heading80


Good Example: 

Tuggy, M.L., & Gilliam, M. (2013, July 28). Knee Injury.St. Louis: Elsevier. Retrieved  

        July, 8, 2015 from


See: APA blog What to Use—The Full Document URL or Home Page URL?

Links to Directly to APA Citation Style, 7th edition - Research Guides at George Washington University

The publications/items found in the National Guidelines Clearinghouse are summaries,  Most of the guideline summaries  in the National Guideline Clearinghouse are actually journal articles and it is best to find the original source when possible. 

Practice Guideline Synthesis (accessed from National Guideline Clearinghouse):


Practice Guideline Synthesis (accessed from National Guideline Clearinghouse):


Author. (date of publication). Guideline synthesis: guideline title. In: National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) [Web site]. Place of publication: Publisher of the guideline. Available from:


National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC). (2008). Guideline synthesis: Screening for breast cancer. In: National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) [Web site]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Available from:


Other Guidelines Accessed from Places Aside from the National Guidelines Clearinghouse 

If citing the full guideline, then cite the guideline as it appeared in the journal.


Format: Author, AB; . (Year of publication). Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue), pages.


American College of Obstetrics & Gynecology. (2011). ACOG practice bulletin no. 120: Use of prophylactic antibiotics in labor               and delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 117(6):1472-83.


DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

DOI (Digital Object Identifier) has only been around since around 2000 and not all articles/publications have a DOI. 

It is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. 

NOTE: It is regarded as the most important part of the citation because it will accurately direct users to the specific article.

The rules for DOIs have been updated in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. They should be included as URLs, rather than just the alphanumeric string.




  • doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • Retrieved from http://doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114